The string theory is a result of scientists attempt to come up with a theory of everything by unifying the electro-magnetic force and the strong and weak nuclear forces predicted by the quantum mechanics with the gravitation force explained by Einstein's theory of relativity.
During the late 1960s experiments colliding atoms at high speed on an atom smasher at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center revealed a bunch of new unknown subatomic constituents.
What scientists found was that subatomic particles were made up of even smaller fundamental particles called quarks. The problem was that point particles could not unify the uncertainty in the very small, described by the quantum mechanics, with the smoothness of the very large, described by the theory of relativity.
However, 1968 a young physicist called, Gabriele Veneziano came up with a formula describing the strong force binding protons to neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
Passed from colleague to colleague the formula ended up in the hands of another young physicist called Leonard Susskind. Susskind found that behind the explanation of the strong nuclear force the formula actually seemed to describe a small vibrating string.
Vibrations manifests particles
The discovery have led to that the majority of today physicists believe that the smallest constituents of subatomic particles and quarks is small, massless, one-dimensional, vibrating strings of energy. And depending on the intensity and frequency of the vibration of the string particles get their unique properties such as mass and charge (E=mc2).
The fabric of cosmos
So the universe could be seen as a grand symphony, composed of an enormous number of strings and depending on the not played on the tiny strings different building blocks are provided to the fabric of cosmos.
However, a problem is that strings needs to occupy 11 dimensions to fulfill the manifestation of particles. In other words, in addition to the three familiar dimensions of space plus the fourth of time strings needs an addition of seven dimensions to operate in. When it is obvious that there are only three special dimensions present around us, or is it...
The physicists Theodor Kaluzo and Oskar Klien argued that maybe there are additional hidden dimensions that we cannot see because they are so small. Take for example the cable hanging between the two buildings. Far away it is difficult to estimate the shape of the cable, you need to come really close and sense the third special dimension to be able to establish the true shape of the cable.
The Calabi-yau shape
Extra dimensions could be as small as one planck's length (< 10-35 meter) illustrated by the Calabi-yau structure, which would make them impossible to detect for the human eye.
Extra dimensions are difficult for us to imagine. However, suppose that a creature called flatlander living, in a two dimensional world, existed. The flatlander eating flatlander tomatoes could then only move in the two dimensions, but they would be able to see our third dimension in two dimensional cross-sections, here illustrated by a tomato from our three dimensional world passing by.
Travel in time
If we apply the two dimensional idea to our world. We see that we can only move in three dimensions even though we can sense the fourth dimension expressed as time. However we can only see time as something passing by, but if we were creatures living in four dimensional space we maybe would be able to travel in time.
The Universe on a string
In the eleventh dimension strings can combine and stretch into enormous proportions and even grow as large as a whole universe.
Scientists believe that our universe is like a large flat surface with an insignificant thickness called membrane or “brane” floating around in hyperspace. And that our universe is one of many parallel universes present in the vast hyperspace, which mean that neighboring universes may not be further away from us than the clothes to our bodies.
Other physical laws
Other universes can be governed by other physical laws than the laws present in our universe.
Open and closed strings
Scientists believe that we cannot observe the nearby universes because our eyes use photons to see, and photons are made up of open strings, which cannot leave the membrane barrier of our universe. Closed strings on the other hand seem to be able to pass in and out through the membrane barrier and into neighboring universes.
Scientist’s thinks that gravitation is made of closed strings and therefore it will dilute itself among the parallel universes, making it appear weaker than the other three familiar forces present in our universe.
Magnetism vs. gravitation
Take for example the electro-magnetic force, here represented by a magnet. It is not difficult for a small magnet to pick up, for example, a key from the surface of the earth, even though the combined gravitation force of the planet is pulling on the key.
Contact nearby universes
In the future scientist’s hopes that by learning how to control closed strings they will be able to contact nearby universes.
Collapse of the wave-function
If we turn our attention back to the two slits experiment. We concluded that a conscious mind governed by other physical laws than the ones present in our universe was needed in order to collapse the wave-function into a particle.
Could it be that our consciousness has its origin in another parallel universe governed by other physical laws and that our very thought is made of closed strings that could pass back and forth between universes. The very idea is breathtaking...
The continuous search for answers
However, I will under no circumstances force you into believe that what I have presenting here, is any way near the final truth regarding a conscious mind. On the contrary, I want you to understand that as long as we humans have populated the planet earth we have tried to answer the question about our place in the universe, and we will go on doing so, by revealing new and far more astonishing discoveries in the future.
The existence of a conscious mind
What I want is for you to give up the idea of a fixed and predetermined world based on Newtonian laws, because scientists have done so a long time ago, and begin to understand that a conscious mind is part of the reality. So for the future, please stay conscious.....